Saturday, March 26, 2016

Buying a Gas Powered RC Cars

What's the proper difference between Gas Powered Remote Control Cars to Electric Powered Ones? Now it is a quite interesting one! Often when you read anything on the subject of remote controlled toys and automobiles you’ll either observe the term Gas Powered RC Cars or just remote control automobiles used. Frequently these types of terms are also used interchangeably (really just like we do on this site).
So is there really a difference between what these two terms refer to?
To some degree this really works straight down to that you ask. Just confirm out any of the forums in the internet and you’ll see there are even often some varying views in the community it self as to what else the distinction really is.
Let’s start through evaluating the term Gas Powered Remote Control Cars. This is generally recognized become short for ‘radio control’ and refers into the technical set up of the gadget in question which (maintaining it reasonably simple) is essentially:
  • your ‘transmitter’ which is actually the hand held controller you use to control the direction, movement etc of your gadget. Anytime you move a joystick on push the button on your hand held controller effectively converts this particular movement into a message that is sent out as radio waves to your gadget.
  • A ‘receiver’ which sits in your gadget to be controlled and receives the radio wave instructions sent after the transmitter.
  • A ‘servo’ (or even more than one servo) and is passed the instructions from that the receiver as well as in response in order to these instructions will send an appropriate message to the motor (or motors) in ones gadget.
  • A ‘motor’ (or even more than one motor) which once it receives is training from the servo takes action to put people instructions inside effect e.g. makes your car race forward to backwards or turn left or right etc.
If you’re after a more in depth explanation of all these different components and how they interact on a much more technical article then check this out
So in comparison to this one very clear technical based understanding, what does ‘remote control cars’ actually mean? Now this is where a bit additional disagreement commonly arises.
Unlike that the very clear technical basis we need to define the term RC Gasoline Cars when this comes to remote control we are much more looking at a descriptive term which on its most widely accepted meaning pertains to any method of controlling a toy, vehicle or another device from a distance.
So this could refer to methods of control such as by wires, by infrared (as a lot of the cheaper versions today use very effectively) or even arguable by RC as of program when you use an RC transmitter to operate a vehicle you are even operating it from a length.
So that while all RC gadgets could be seen in order to be ‘remote control’ only a few ‘remote control’ gadgets have the essential technical make up towards be considered gasoline rc car gadgets.
BUT increasingly people utilize that terms interchangeably (even I tend to on this site) and in all honesty it doesn’t really matter unless of course you are looking at buying and tend to be really specifically after some of the advantages radio control may have done some of the other forms to remote control. In these cases verify you do spend time searching on detail behind the name used to always have always been really buying what you would like.

Monday, March 31, 2014

Relationship Between The Printing Press And Music

Relationship Between The Printing Press And Music

When thinking about the invention of the printing press an immediate response is to think about the impact that turning point in history had on literature. Often the musical significance of this incredible invention is overlooked.This article will outline the early history of the printing press. Almost as soon as the printing press was developed, type designs were introduced. Type designs were created and linked to printing in different countries.

Even today, it is possible to see the effects that the printing press has on modern living. With having written words it was possible to be expressive through writing. Printed word established the relationship between art and printing. Decorative printing was a step in developing art in printing. To understand the link between printing and music it is important to know the difference between literature printing and musical notation. One obvious difference is that music texts are for performance. Another significant difference is that music texts are deciphered twice: first, by the performer and then by the listener.

The printing of music creates a direct connection between the composer and the performer. It is essential that the printing of music is as accurate as possible as this will be the only communication between the creation and reproduction.

Before the printing press original manuscripts, or hand written copies, were used to perform from. The printing press changed the size of pieces from the original manuscripts. Reading off of a smaller score puts constrictions to the performance of the work.

Published music was invented before the invention of the printing press. Early published music was reproduced by engraving on plates. This process was time consuming and very difficult.

Despite the fact that the printing press was invented in the fifteenth century, the first copyright law was not in place until the early eighteenth century. The purpose of having a copyright varies throughout the world. When copyright was first established it was used as a noun, literally meaning having the right in the copy. Having the right copy refers to giving credit to the individual who created the original idea. The shift today is the use of copyright as a verb – the right to copy.

The printing press put many constraints on music. One constraint was the interpretation of music was limited. As the performance text grew further away from the composer's original manuscript, the musical interpretation grew further away as well. Also, as mentioned earlier, there was a size difference in the paper produced from the printing press and original manuscripts. This size different changes the way the performer visually reads a piece.

With music being reproduced by printing presses and publishing houses, the need for a music editor arose. There are many disadvantages to have an editor working with music scores. A large problem musicians face is working with scores that have been over edited. Another related problem is the fact that many editors have not done significant research before they add material to the score.

With the rise of publishers, numerous editions are created, printing the same material. It is possible to buy two different editions of a piece with a discrepancy in something even as basic as having the correct notes. Some editions are not as researched as others, creating interpretations that may not be close to the composer's original intention.


Printing previous to 1500 was referred to as the incunabula period. Incunabulum is derived from Latin which means cradle, therefore symbolizing the beginning of the art of printing. By the eighteenth century the term was applied to all books printed before 1500. In the nineteenth century, incunabulum meant any “individual item that emanated from the printing presses of the fifteenth century.”
Johann Gutenberg
Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg began working with the invention of the printing press around 1440. He began working on this “when he was a political exile at Strasbourg.” Many people mistake Gutenberg's invention with the invention of published books. This belief is reinforced by “the inevitable association of Gutenberg's name with the 42-line Bible.” Gutenberg should receive credit for the invention of “the method of producing punches and matrices to be used with a mold for metal types of identical height. Thereby it was possible to produce a type having a uniform rectangular body. The individual letters so cast could be placed by the compositor in proper juxtaposition to one another in free combination. They were interchangeable, hence the term movable metal types.”

This printing press was large and very difficult to operate. The awkward machine “made presswork toilsome; and it was incapable of printing a full sheet of paper at one pull.” Despite this fact it still increased the number of literate people in the world.

Gutenberg quit working on the printing press for two main reasons. The first is that his source of funding was taken away. Gutenberg “had a patron who in 1455 foreclosed on him and gave most of the presses and types to his soon to be son-in-law Schöffer of Gernsheim.” The second reason the Gutenberg gave up working on the printing press was due to physical reasons. Gutenberg “became blind after 1460 and abandoned any further pursuit of his invention.”

Gutenberg died in 1468 and his epitaph reads “to the immortal memory of Johannes Gensfleisch, the inventor of the art of printing, who has deserved well of every nation and language.” His invention influenced the rest of the world for many centuries after his death. After the early invention of the printing press it “reached a state of technical efficiency not materially surpassed until well into the nineteenth century.”

Consolidation Era

After the invention of the printing press, from around 1550 until 1800, the consolidation era was established. As mentioned earlier, no technical advancements were made to the printing press during this time. Neither were there any new inventions, regarding the printing press, made during this time. The consolidation era, as the name suggests, stabilized the printing industry.

During this time the working middle class people had the opportunity to learn how to read and write. Before this it was reserved as a privilege for the wealthy to be literate. Because more people were now reading it was necessary to provide information to people for them to read. The general public's “desire for quick information and for regular entertainment brought into existence the periodical press.”

The first public library was developed during the consolidation era. Before libraries existed with manuscripts but were for private use only, owned by various people like Julius Caesar.

Censorship of printed word was established in the consolidation era. It was the responsibility of the lay and the church to censor the publications. Printers and publishers did not always appreciate censorship and would use “the smallest possible size, the largest possible types, and every other device which a century-old fight against censorship had taught them.”

Nineteenth Century Printing

In the nineteenth century the technique of printing gradually changed. There was a hesitation from the public to advance further in the printing press in order to avoid mechanization. By the late nineteenth century, “the concept of mechanization [began] to make an impact on letter-founding, type-composition, and bookbinding, and not until the late 1880s did the combined casting and composing machine become a commercial reality.”
The nineteenth century brought about technical progress in the printing press. This was the century that began the slow process of turning printing from a trade into an industry.

The strict regulations for censorship had been lifted during this century. Censorship was now “based on voluntary [agreements] of the parties concerned and not on compulsory measures of the authorities.”
It was during this century that governments used the press “for large scale, direct, and incessant appeals and orders to the masses.” The Revolutionary and Napoleonic France governments were first to use press this way.
Type Design

After the death of Gutenberg in 1468, the printing press had spread throughout many different countries. By the middle of the sixteenth century every nation developed a certain type design. Type design throughout history has always had a deeper, more political meaning than it appears at first. When Roman and Italic types were invented they
represented the humanism in people. The type design of Germany, Russia, and Turkey represented the resistance to humanism. The importance of type design can be noted by “the recent transition to the ‘Latin' alphabet by the Germans and Turks is a major step towards the unity of world civilization; just as the refusal of post-Lenin Russia to abandon the Cyrillic letter – nay, its progressive imposition on the Soviet colonials – is a significant omen of the deep cleavage between East and West.”


After discussing type design it is possible to see the relationship between art and printing. With the beginning of printed books there was a high level of technical achievements but this was “combined with great beauty of design, that the printing of music began.” Visual effects of printed music are vital to the overall effect the music will have on the performer and audience. Engraving of music connected the visual aspect of music to the notating process. This process of engraving “naturally led to a great increase in the use of pictorial title pages and decorated borders.” Illustrations were sometimes used, even as far as to having comic pictures between staves and in the margins of the music.

Difference Between Printing and Music

There is a large difference between printing music and printing solely verbal text. A quote from King's Four Hundred Years of Music Printing summarizes the difference between literature and musical notation:
“the letters forming a word represent a concept to be conveyed by the eye to the brain, in music the note, whether accompanied by a text or not, is primarily an instruction to bring into action lungs or fingers, or both combined, in order to produce a sound at a certain pitch and of a certain duration.”

The difficulty with musical notation is that the symbols need to be made as clearly and precise as possible.
There are two aspects of musical notation: horizontality and verticality. Horizontality refers to the horizontal aspects of music notation. One point in horizontality is the relationship between each note. This includes the intervallic relationship from note to note. Another aspect of horizontality is “the changes in spacing between one note or group of notes and the next, as required by changes in time-values.”

The vertical aspect of musical notation sets it completely apart from verbal text, as the concept of writing two words at the same time is not practical. The vertical part of musical notation is having the two or more notes in the same alignment on the stave. This vertical arrangement is important in vocal works as “a precise vertical relationship has also to be established between the notes on the stave and the syllables of the underlying text.”

If the printed musical score is altered in any way the horizontality and verticality could potential have a different meaning to the reader. This could in turn alter the performance and bring the work further away from the composer's original idea.

Another main difference between music texts and literature is “the fact that musical texts are performance texts. Musical texts presume a musical performance, with the result that music as manifest in print leads a dual life as text and performance.” Understanding that in earlier times music reached people mainly by performances it is important to note that “any history of the musical cultures of print must engage performative issues.”

Deciphering music as a performative text adds certain angles that are not present in literature. It is important to note that “performance and print both shape the way music conveys its meaning; yet while historians of music have long been cognizant of the former – that performers interpret and mold the meaning of the texts they realize – they have rarely theorized the implications of print in similar terms.” Often performers will trust what is written on the page instead of looking for the true intention of the composer. The effect that printed music has on performance is so great that it “[stands] alongside performance in the triangle if [forms] with composers and audiences.”

Musical texts are deciphered twice which does not occur often in literature. Musical text meanings “unfold twice as they are “read” both by musicians and then by audiences. In the first instance, the black signs cast across the pages of musical scores give musicians instructions for how to perform a given piece; the notes help musicians to produce a reading of a piece, public or private, whether with instruments, voice, or both.” The only link that the audience has to the music is what the performer portrays and the only thing that the performer can give the audience is what he takes from the musical score.

Due to the fact that reading music produces an audible sound, it is understood that this type of reading is not transparent, like most literature texts. Interpretation of musical scores creates “variant readings with each performance, impressing their individual marks upon the works they play.” Because of this fact it is argued that musicians “approximate texts.” The appearance of the musical text is essential for a successful interpretation as it can “[disrupt] the linear continuum between composer and audience in the same way that musical performances do. Print complicates and expands this middle ground by multiplying the material forms of texts and thereby multiplying their meanings.”

It is possible to compare the performance of musical scores to reading a book to someone that is illiterate. The musicians “mediate what for many listeners is an illegible text, pages of hieroglyphs that require special literacy: the score. Notation alone sets music apart from literature.”

Like someone telling a story, the performance of a musical text “becomes available to an audience of listeners who in turn “read” the music they hear, responding to it, making sense of it, multiplying its meanings.”

Another difficulty facing printing of musical scores is the distance that the text is kept from the performer. In a performance “music is usually placed further away from the eye than is the text of a book when being read, the factors of distance and proportion produce special problems of design.” The musical text needs to be extra clear because of the distance kept from the performer.


The concept of representing music by notation is accredited to the Greeks since “musical notation is as old as the alphabet, for that is as far as our knowledge goes; and the Greeks were the earliest to make use of this principle.” By Pope Gregory's time, around the middle of the sixth century, it was important to write down music as it was realized that “unless sounds are retained in the memory, they perish, because they cannot be written.”

The time right after the invention of the printing press printed music became more popular. By 1465 “printing began to supersede manuscript music.” Despite the increase in using the printing press “music printing remained… very far behind the progress made in other branches of typography.”

The first record of printed music dates back to 1473. This document “only contains five notes of music.” Even with the little amount of musical notation in this work “it actually [formed] the foundation of music printing.” The first book of printed music was made around this same time. It is a Gradual that “lacks both a date and a printer's name, but the type used to print the text is identical with that of the ‘Constance Breviary” one copy of which was lubricated in 1473.” Another clue as to the date of this book is the fact that the press that was used to publish this book had a short life span.

The first printed music with an actual date is a Missal from Rome that was dated October 12, 1476. This music was “printed in Roman notation, with initials in red or blue, and touches of yellow in the capitals, all added by hand.”

Even though the printing press had been invented it was common in this time period to add details by hand. This would include adding colors or extra details that the printing press was not capable of doing. Sometimes the music staves would be blank and the notes would be added by hand.

By around 1690 improvements were being made to the design of printed music. John Heptinstall came up with “the system of joining together the hooks of the quavers and semiquavers.” Quavers and semiquavers refer to eighth and sixteenth notes that before this time had been written with separate flags. Hepinstall “also introduced a further improvement, that of making the heads of the notes round instead of lozenge-shaped.”

Even with these improvements in the seventeenth century there were still weaknesses in the printing of music. The weakness of movable type with musical notation “lay in its clumsiness and lack of flexibility when used for printing chords and florid music.”

The year 1683 marked the beginning of sheet music. This is quite different from sheet music as we know it today, as this was created by using metal sheets to engrave the music onto. Thomas Cross “was practically the inventor of sheet music” and after copying Purcell's Sonatas of III parts signed his name on the bottom.

By the middle of the seventeenth century the variety of music expanded to include more concerti and symphonies, requiring more instruments and printed parts. This increase in parts meant that a “large quantity of separate parts required had to be supplied in multiple copies more quickly than was usually possible by the use of movable type or by the employment of handcopyists.”

The beginning of the eighteenth century marked the decline of music printed from type. The reason for this decrease
“was that musical composition had become more elaborate and the old movable type was found inadequate to represent it. Copperplate engraving, which was then flourishing and largely used, was, therefore, naturally adopted. This method was, however, found expensive, so that it became in a measure superseded by the method of punching the notes on pewter plates.”

Another important milestone in the eighteenth century was the printing of the first music book, in the United States, from movable type. This book was Fünff schöne Geistliche Lieder, published in Germantown, Pennsylvania. It was published by Christoph Saur who was also responsible for designing the type.

At the end of the eighteenth century and the turn of the nineteenth century lithography was adopted as a primary source of printing music. Lithography involves “[writing] on [a] stone with greasy ink, and then [coating] the surgace with a mixture of water, acid and gum Arabic. Finally [inking] the whole, and the ink was absorbed solely by the writing. Thus an impression was left which could be taken directly from the surface of the stone.”

By the nineteenth century printing using lithography was not as common. This process was being switched from printing on stones to printing on metal plates “[making] printing easier and quicker.” This process produced many large works in the eighteenth century including eight full scores of Rossini operas and the seven-volume Raccolta di musica sacra.
Later in the nineteenth century lithographic stones were replaced by plates made of zinc and aluminum which increased the speed of production. More advances in printing have developed due to the invention of photographic techniques and other mechanical devices. It is possible with these machines to produce elaborate scores. However, despite the potential these new machines have “the once tasteful and diversified art of music printing has generally reached a level of uniformity more widespread than at any time in its history. Failing a revolution in design or technique, the printed note now seems to have lost its former capacity to rival the range of processes and founts of type which were – and still are – available for the printing of books.”


The invention of the printing press indirectly puts constraints on the performance of music. Constraints include things such as limited music interpretation, over editing and having numerous editions of the same piece of music.

In the Renaissance, when the printing press was first put to use, composers were worried about the effect that the printing press would have on their compositions. They thought that “print represented a loss of control” and compared their printed works to “children sent out alone into the world.”

With a standardized look modern printing has, printed music detracts from the art of the original manuscript. The desire of musical scores is to create a work that is as close to the composer's original idea. Editions that have “manuscript sources, …, [promise] a version of the text that [seems] closer to the author's original or final intentions.”

Many problems occur with the editors of music. It has been found that “the variants introduced by earlier editors, the errors of compilers and typesetters, and the abbreviations used in early printed books all [stand] in the way of recovering the author's authentic text.” In many editions something as basic as correct notes are not consistent which creates the need to identify the errors and correct them.

The invention of the printing press had a significant effect on history from that point and after. Type designs were created by various countries where the printing press had quickly spread to many countries.

Art is connected with printing in many ways. The printing press was another way for people to express their creativity. This could be done with adding color or other hand written details.

The link between music and printing is essential to understand before one can see the impact that the invention of the printing press had on music. The differences between literature and musical notation are significant. Musical texts are performance texts and are deciphered twice.

The history of printed music dates earlier than the invention of the printing press. The early forms of printing music ranged from engraving onto copper plates to carving pieces of wood.

Printed music adds many constraints on the performance of music. The musical interpretation can suffer from reading off of various scores. Also, it is easy for editors to make mistakes, which in turn causes confusion for the performer. Related to this, with many editions it is difficult for the performer to know which edition is the most accurate.

The printing of books is not what makes Gutenberg's invention so significant in history. The important thing to note about the printing press is its ability to produce a large amount of identical copies. This principle, with the help of technology, has made it possible to produce millions of identical newspapers within a few hours. It is this principle that “has made Gutenberg's invention a turning point in the history of civilization.”

Thursday, March 6, 2014

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Tuesday, February 18, 2014

Supreme Court Commutes Death Penalty Of Rajiv Gandhi's Killers To Life Term

With this, the three convicts on death row in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case Santhan, Murugan and Perarivalan have been spared the gallows. A bench headed by Chief Justice P Sathasivam rejected the Centre's submission that there was no unreasonable delay in deciding their mercy plea and the condemned prisoners did not go through agonizing experience as they were enjoying life behind the bars. The bench, also comprising justices Ranjan Gogoi and S K Singh, said they are unable to accept the Centre's view and commuted the death sentence of convicts to imprisonment for life subject to remission by the government. There had been inordinate delay on government and President's part to decide their mercy pleas, the SC judges said. The apex court rejected the Centre's contention that delay in deciding mercy plea of convicts Santhan, Murugan and Perarivalan did not result in agony. "We implore government to render advice in reasonable time to the President for taking a decision on mercy pleas," the court said. The top court has asked the government to add a new criteria for considering commuting death penalty to life imprisonment inordinate delay in deciding mercy petitions. It said the government should handle the cases of mercy petitions in a more systematic manner. "We are confident that mercy plea can be decided at much faster speed than what is being done now," the bench said. The convicts had submitted that mercy plea of other prisoners, which were filed after them, were decided but their petitions were kept pending by the government. Their plea was strongly opposed by the Centre which had said that it was not a fit case for the apex court to commute death sentence on the ground of delay in deciding mercy plea. Admitting that there has been delay in deciding the mercy petitions, the government, however, had contended that the delay was not unreasonable, unexplainable and unconscionable to commute death penalty. The counsel, appearing for the convicts, had contested the Centre's arguments, saying that they have suffered due to the delay by the government in deciding the mercy petitions and the apex court should intervene and commute their death sentence to life term. The apex court had, in May 2012, decided to adjudicate the petitions of Rajiv Gandhi killers against their death penalty and had directed that their plea, pending with the Madras high court, be sent to it. Rajiv Gandhi was killed in May 1991. His assassins were convicted by a TADA court in January 1998 and were awarded death sentence, which was confirmed by the apex court May 11, 1999.
For the original version visit

Monday, February 17, 2014

five Easy Ways Professional Caretakers Can Prevent Compassion Fatigue

Have you heard of the newer buzz words "compassion fatigue"? It happens when you feel you just don't have anything left to give to your clients/patients. Karl LaRowe, in his book "Transform Compassion Fatigue" shares his personal story of being a therapist who actually started feeling depressed after several years of doing psychotherapy. He realized he had not been taking care of himself on a daily basis, which over time made it difficult for him to continue to be totally present, positive and encouraging to others because he felt depleted himself.

Karl shared something called Qigong which he describes in his book. The techniques include smooth body movements with special breath work to balance energy. When I tried a few of the techniques I felt a combination of refreshed and relaxed.

Self Care is Not Selfish

There is a western analogy that can help caretakers understand why it is so important to take time to care of ourselves. The wagon wheel's hub holds all the spokes in place. Imagine what would happen to the wheel if the hub became weak and broke. Yes, the whole wheel would fall apart. Much the same happens to caretakers' lives when they don't keep themselves (the hub) strong. When caretakers start to feel apathy towards their clients and even family members, it is as if their life wheel is weakened because their hubs are "fractured." If they continue on the road to compassion fatigue, they often can get depressed, get physically ill and may even get to a point where they cannot continue in their caretaker roles, much like the hub of a wheel breaking. Therefore to prevent caretaker compassion fatigue, it is first necessary to recognize we also have nurturing/health needs that must be filled or we can become basically useless to help others.

Five Simple Ways to Nurture the Nurturer/Caretaker

1) Take a few minutes to connect with and enjoy nature. (For city dwellers, maybe grow some flowers in your yard and spend time drinking in their beauty/scent, or buy some!)

2) Learn QiGong or Hatha Yoga and practice a few techniques/postures every day to both relax and re-energize.

3) Read something positive. Garrison and Duncan in their book "Stressed Out About Your Nursing Career" suggest "Chicken Soup for the Nurse's Soul" by Jack Canfield, but some prefer spiritually oriented books, to "feed the soul" or just remind us of our intrinsic worth.

4) Take a brisk walk or engage in another enjoyable (with the emphasis on "enjoyable") aerobic exercise of your choice for at least twenty minutes, three time per week. I found a "buddy" helps to keep us both motivated, and besides chatting while walking is a lot more fun for me.

5) Develop an artistic hobby, and/or attend relaxing concerts (like those featuring soft jazz or classical music or listen to it on the radio), or go to a museum of your choice.

Using one or more of the above suggestions that give you a pleasant experience can help fill up your own "needs tank". Supportive relationships can also help, but be aware that many of us who are caretakers often attract people who basically want us to take care of them. i.e. the classic "give-take" relationship is not "I give, you take".

Rather positive/healthy outside relationships are based on mutual respect and sharing.

Also, if caretakers socialize with other caretakers who are becoming fatigued, the interactions often become complaint sessions, and the people involved usually feel even more depleted after the conversations. Sometimes a co-worker can become a friend, but I find it helpful to agree not to talk about work, while enjoying some pleasant activity, helps keep a healthy balance.

Another great way to deal with keeping passion for caretaking high, is seeing the humor in small everyday occurrences. I like two of the "Blue Collar" comedians who tell funny stories from their real family lives, for example, as I think most of us can relate and it doesn't put anybody else down, etc. A sense of humor can I find really help make our serious work at least a little bit fun, and fun can help us see caretaking as a more positive form of work.

Whatever you choose to do to care for yourself, make sure you take time to do it on a regular basis. If the "guilt monster" raises its ugly head, remind yourself of the wagon wheel analogy. If you don't stay healthy, positive and strong, you have nothing to give others. Besides aren't you just as worthy of care as those you care for? YOU ARE!

Garrison, Kathleen and Duncan, Jill, Stressed Out About Your Nursing Career. HCPro, Inc., Marblehead, MA, 2008 LaRowe, Karl, Transform Compassion Fatigue PESI,LLC, Leclaire, WI, 2005